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The equality of units in a federation is best guaranteed by their equal representation in the Uppers House of the federal legislature (Parliament).

Such an amendment has to be passed by majority of total members of each house of the Parliament as well as by two-thirds majority of the members present and voting there in.

However, in addition to this process, some amendments must be approved by at least 50% of the states.

Supremacy of judiciary is another very important feature of a federal state where there is an independent judiciary to interpret the Constitution and to maintain its sanctity.

The Supreme Court of India has the original jurisdiction to settle disputes between the Union and the States.

In a true federation such as that of United State of America every State irrespective of their size in terms of area or population it sends two representatives in the upper House i.e. In addition to all this, all important appointments such as the Chief Election Commissioner, the Comptroller and Auditor General are made by the Union Government. There is no provision for separate Constitutions for the states.

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A unitary system is governed constitutionally as one single unit, with one constitutionally created legislature. A unitary state is a sovereign state governed as one single unit in which the central government is supreme and any administrative divisions (sub national units) exercise only powers that the central government chooses to delegate.This is one of the federal features of the Indian constitution.

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But actually Indian constitution contains both features of a federal constitution and unitary constitution.As such amendments can only be made by the Union Parliament.All India Services such as IAS and IPS have been created which are kept under the control of the Union.In Indian constitution the powers of state and centre are clearly defined and there are very clear limits of both the centre and the state for law making powers. The State List consists of 66 subjects of local interest such as Public Health, Police etc.The Concurrent List has 47 subjects important to both the Union and the State such as Electricity, Trade Union, Economic and Social Planning, etc.This enables the Union government to exercise control over the State administration.