Internet dating hoax
A number of conspiracy theorists do accept that NASA went to the moon, and — with unmanned probes — the rest of the Solar System; however, the things those craft saw were so incredible that The Powers That Be had to doctor the photographs to hide evidence of aliens (or Space Nazis).
In the US, the hoax claim was originated by libertarian writer Bill Kaysing (1922-2005) with his 1976 book We Never Went to the Moon: America's Thirty Billion Dollar Swindle.
It is a shame Kaysing is mostly remembered for that, because he also wrote some great books on sustainable living, privacy, hot springs, homelessness, cooking, and other topics.
This includes the subgroup believing that human spaceflight — or indeed, spaceflight at all — is impossible for some other reasons.
Probably most common is the belief that the astronauts only went into a low orbit around the Earth.
Kaysing alleged that his own publishers were in cahoots with NASA to suppress the book after he received a letter from his own editor saying that the manuscript wasn't good enough for publication.
Proponents of the hoax theory insist that there are no stars visible in any of the footage or photographs taken on the moon. Take any image at night and you'll very rarely see stars in the sky.This is because stars are faint things, which is the very reason you can't see them during the day.
Proponents of such claims never bother to check the facts, such as what kinds of ionizing radiation exist in space, what are their sources, what are the expected radiation levels and what protective measures are taken against them.Ignorance of space radiation and its effects can lead to amusing results, such as claiming that passing through the Van Allen belts would literally melt the Apollo spacecraft while Van Allen himself stated that it's all nonsense.Aforementioned Bill Kaysing argued for a middle ground between this option and the previous option: namely, that Apollo spacecraft went into a low orbit on remote control, but astronauts themselves were whisked away to the "moon set" in Nevada before launch.Spaniard Juan José Benítez is another, saying Apollo XI astronauts found an abandoned alien base that they destroyed with a nuclear bomb. that turned out to be fake and done by a Basque animation company.Independent journalist Marcus Allen has said that, as a professional photographer, he is certain that none of the photographic materials from Apollo could have actually been obtained on the Moon, for technical reasons.They assert that the program was behind schedule and the United States faked reports of the first landing to fulfill Kennedy's unofficial deadline of "before the decade is out" and/or to score the first landing before the Soviets managed to get theirs.